How To Become An Astronomer (With Steps And Skills)

Updated 27 September 2023

Astronomy is one of the oldest disciplines and it involves the scientific study of celestial bodies such as stars, planets, comets and galaxies. It combines knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry, evolution, celestial object motion and meteorology. It explains the physics of the universe's solar systems, galaxies and black holes, some of which you can see with a satellite or telescope. In this article, we will look at what an astronomer is, how to become one and the skills you may require to succeed in this profession.

How To Become An Astronomer

If you are interested in a career in astronomy, here are some steps you can take to learn how to become an astronomer. These steps include information about pursuing education, training and certifications:

1. Take classes related to astronomy in high school

You can start as early as high school if you have an interest in astronomy. You may try out a few classes to see whether you enjoy them. Look through your high school course catalogue for astronomy, physics, computer science or math classes and take a couple to see if they interest you.

2. Earn a bachelor's degree

Earning a bachelor's degree in a science-related discipline is the first step toward becoming an astronomer. Many PhD programmes allow candidates with only a bachelor's degree, while others demand both a bachelor's degree and a master's degree. Attempt to be well-rounded in your studies by enrolling in a diverse range of courses. Consider earning a Bachelor of Science in astrophysics, astronomy or a closely related area such as mathematics or physics, to gain basic knowledge and training needed for more advanced degree programmes.

3. Acquire a master's degree

Next, consider obtaining a master's degree, such as a Master of Science in astronomy, astrophysics or cosmology. Earning a master's degree in astronomy is advantageous since it may lead to a variety of employment opportunities. A master's degree typically takes two years to complete and may include coursework as well as the production of a thesis.

4. Join astronomy societies

By becoming a member of a local astronomical society or club, you can network with other aspiring astronomers. It offers you instruction and guidance, as well as the chance to interact and meet new people who share your interests. Developing these connections can lead to future job opportunities. The Astronomical Society of India and the IAC Indian Astronomy Club are some of the astronomy societies in India.

5. Get your PhD in astronomy

After obtaining the necessary degrees, you can look into getting accepted into a doctoral programme to pursue a PhD in astronomy. PhD programmes give you a comprehensive experimental, observational and theoretical basis for successful astronomical careers. They also offer a broad knowledge of astrophysics and competence in teaching.

6. Apply for a postdoctoral research job or fellowship

After you graduate, you may begin to look for astronomer jobs. It is imperative to know that most laboratories require to see some relevant work experience on your resume first. Look for postdoctoral research opportunities or fellowships that demonstrate your skills to work as a professional astronomer to get ahead of the competition.

7. Apply for astronomy jobs

You may start looking for jobs as an astronomer after you acquire relevant degrees and adequate fellowship experience. Some astronomy careers may require you to spend the bulk of your time in a lab, but others allow you to travel to new locations. What you select is determined by your interests and your area of expertise. It is also critical that you create a resume that you keep up to date with every award, publication and conference presentation you make during your career.

Related: 9 Astronomy Jobs (With Salaries And Responsibilities)

Skills Required To Become An Astronomer

There are several skills required for candidates to gain excellent career opportunities in astronomy. Some of those skills include:

Communication skills

Communication skills are essential in this field because most astronomers operate as part of a team. They also increase your chances of forming relationships with coworkers. Communication skills may boost your performance by allowing you to extract clear expectations from your management to provide remarkable outcomes.

Computer skills

Computer skills are necessary for all areas of astronomy. To be a good astronomer, you may require appropriate technical abilities to contribute to the team. Whether working with real data from observatories or doing theoretical work, modern astronomy requires extensive computer programming and modelling. You may be required to use various applications to develop computational models based on theoretical equations.

Critical thinking

Critical thinking is an essential talent in this sector since it aids in problem-solving, creativity and teamwork. It may help you identify as a useful employee and leader. Taking the extra time to assess things objectively, make conclusions based on logic and convey them effectively can benefit you, your coworkers and your professional aspirations. You may analyse your own work and the work of others by using critical thinking to assess if the results and conclusions are accurate.

Innovative thinking

Astronomy necessitates creativity and alternative thinking to produce fresh ideas. Many astronomical discoveries have resulted from scientists' willingness to forgo traditional thinking and reasoning to think differently. It is essential to combine traditional scientific concepts and creativity to conduct a significant study in astronomy and deliver outstanding results.


The job involves being open to change and a high level of variation in the workplace. You may be required to keep up with working knowledge of specialised equipment that is constantly evolving with technological advancement. You may travel to laboratories and observatories all around the world to research astronomical phenomena and gather data.

Interpersonal skills

Interpersonal skills are beneficial in both academic and industry research settings. Physicists and astronomers may be required to work closely to achieve a common objective. Great interpersonal skills can help in describing scientific phenomena and understandably transmitting knowledge. Interpersonal skills also aid researchers in obtaining funding for their initiatives.

Writing skills

Astronomers need good writing skills to write grant proposals to obtain funding and telescope time for their work. This talent can also help them share their study with the rest of the world by writing journals. Excellent technical writing abilities can aid in efficiently communicating astronomical facts to a wide range of audiences.

Mathematical skills

Astronomers articulate their studies in mathematical terms. You may be required to execute complex calculations integrating calculus, geometry, algebra and other branches of mathematics. These results might point to the presence of planets in other solar systems.

Related: How Much Does An Astronaut Make? (Plus Qualifications)

Astronomer Job Responsibilities

Astronomers are continuously looking for new stars and planets and tracking changes in current celestial objects. The work necessitates the utilisation of sophisticated monitoring equipment and telescopes to look at celestial things not visible to the naked eye. Astronomy job responsibilities may also include:

  • Forming hypotheses: Astronomers may spend a majority of their time developing new hypotheses, theories or mathematical models to test and verify complex ideas about space.

  • Writing research proposals: Astronomers may prepare a document outlining the intricacies of a research topic and justifying the necessity to investigate it. It gives a contextual backdrop for future study and practical methods for carrying it out.

  • Data collection for analysis: Astronomers, like all scientists, rely on data to assist them to comprehend scientific phenomena. Hence, gathering data and assessing it is essential for developing conclusions regarding scientific occurrences.

  • Publishing research papers: After extensively testing a hypothesis, an astronomer writes a detailed research paper outlining their approach and results to improve everyone's understanding of the subject.

  • Presenting their results: Astronomers go to various astronomical conferences to give presentations and lectures to other scientists and the general public about their scientific discoveries.

Related: 11 Astrophysics Jobs (With Salaries, Duties And Tips)

Astronomer Job Description Example

Here is an example of an astronomer's responsibilities:

The Institute of Astrophysics is looking for an analytical astronomer with a solid grasp of software, equipment and scientific and mathematical ideas to gather and assess data. To enhance our understanding of the cosmos, the selected candidate will conduct experiments, collect data and create and test ideas. Excellent interpersonal, communication and technical skills are a big plus. Candidates who possess a PhD in astronomy or astrophysics, as well as three years of related experience, are preferred.

Please note that none of the companies, institutions or organisations mentioned in this article are affiliated with Indeed.


  • 10 Particle Physics Careers To Consider (With Job Duties)

  • What Is a Geologist? (With Duties, Skills and Salary)

  • How Much Do Astrophysicists Make? (Salary And Career Advice)

  • How To Become a Scientist in 4 Steps

  • Different Types Of Physicists (With Duties And Skills)

Explore more articles

  • What Does An Email Marketing Specialist Do? (With Skills)
  • Career In Advertising: Types, Job Titles And Descriptions
  • 8 Security Analyst Certification Options (With Tips)
  • What Does A Sociologist Do? (With Skills And FAQs)
  • What Is Fashion Merchandising? A Comprehensive Guide
  • What Does A Historian Do? Skills, Work Environment And FAQs
  • What Is A Medical Records Analyst? (Plus Duties And Skills)
  • 10 Helpful Skills To Be A Carer (Tips To Improve And FAQs)
  • Comprehensive Guide: How To Become a Construction Manager
  • 13 Highest-Paying Jobs In Delhi (With Salary Information)
  • How To Become A School Counsellor (With Essential Skills)
  • Technical Skills For Marketing: Examples And Ways To Improve